you pick one from four topics

    Answer ONE of the following questions:
    Question 1: What is neoliberalism? Discuss how neoliberalism has influenced urban agendas in the context ofyour city/town/suburb (this could be Toronto or any other city you are familiar with). What effect haveneoliberal policies had on urban growth, equity, class and social stratification, and community organizing? How
    does neoliberalism relate to gentrification? Discuss in terms of the production of space, uneven development,
    and revanchism under neoliberal capitalism.

    Question 2: Land (the organization, control and use of land) is a central aspect of life. Land questions are also
    crucial when considering the future of urban environments. Discuss in relationship to indigenous politics, black
    geographies, and informal settlements.

    Question 3: How does globalization affect relations of race, class, ethnicity, gender, and identity shape your
    city (this could be Toronto or any other city you are familiar with)? How have the transformation of work and
    employment, information technology and shift in manufacturing since the 1970s influenced your city?

    Question 4: Explain what is meant by the production of space? Discuss in terms of production of space and
    urbanization. What is the role of urban planning in the production of space? Explain how Euclidian zoning,
    building bylaws, and other tools of urban planning contribute to addressing or creating urban inequalities?

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