The Effects of Racism on Humans: Diminished Internalizing Symptoms and Negative Physical Outcomes.

    Attached you will find an “A+ level sample paper” to assist with formatting/structure expectations of this assignment

    Also i have included sources (below) that my professor has approved for use. you must include these sources in the body in addition to extra sources as long as they fit the criteria( not older than 10 years, can only be empirical/quantitative work,  must be peer reviewed, the dependent variables used can not be mediating or moderating factors )

    i have already completed my introduction with the thesis statement and statement objective. I need the rest of the paper completed including the body, discussion, and conclusion.

    my statement is -> The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate that victims of racism are at risk of experiencing higher levels of internalizing symptoms, (e.g., depression and anxiety; Donovan et al., 2012), as well as negative physical health outcomes (e.g., Lewis et al., 2017), amongst adult men and women between the ages of 19 to- 104 in various demographics. This paper will examine and systematically review research on racism, as well as highlight the important effects racism has on amongst men and women between the ages of 19 to- 104 on a variety of populations. More specifically, the purpose of this essay is to (a) explore the effects racism has on internalizing symptoms, (b) explore the effects racism has on physical health and (c) identify potential limitations and implication of research finds, and investigate future directions for research. 

    My independent variable is racism
    my dependent variable is internalizing symptoms (i.e anxiety and depression) and physical health outcomes.

    -This is a literature review, which means that it is a detailed review of research
    Not a summary of individual studies.
    – you must organize the literature review into sections that present themes within each paragraph
    the entire body of your paper is providing research to support your thesis statement
    -it Must be organized/conceptualized/planned BEFORE you start writing
     -present the information in a way that is clear and logical so that the reader can easily follow along
    -Identify the theme of paragraph at the beginning, but avoid providing the results at this point
    -Provide a collective summary of methods used provide context on population of interest, relevant methods, etc
    -Provide collective summary of results
    -EXPLAIN the meaning of the results for THAT SPECIFIC theme in that paragraph for that specific population of interest
    -Each theme can be one to a few paragraphs
    -Whenever you change your focus, it is time for a new paragraph
    -The reader does not need to know every finding or theory concerning the general topics of the essay
    Only ideas and findings that provide a solid theoretical or empirical foundation for the thesis statement should be presented
    Must be relevant to thesis statement
    -you need to be complete with the information you do include
    Avoid simply saying that variables were related. 
    Be specific and say how
    E.g., positive correlation must be specified
    -explanation must stay true to the research and cannot include personal opinions
    -It is important that the literature review is as concise as possible so that the reader can remain focused and interested in reading the paper.
    -specific examples should be provided to clarify your statements
    -provide more detailed information about the most important findings/studies that are highly related to your specific thesis statement, clearly specify key information for research methods if describing a study in more detail.
    -Headings and sub headings may help the reader comprehend the organization of the literature review.
    Must be in APA format
    Need to be consistent with components of thesis statement
    -The body should always have a connection to the thesis statement-The writing style should be formal and academic
    No personal pronouns
    No emotional language
    E.g., These results were shocking
    E.g., These amazing animals were so special to the young children

    this is the structure of my introduction (I will be uploading the word document in the next day)
    -general introduction intro racism
    -define racism and all concepts on racism
    -provide research based examples of racism
    -provide background research such as prevalence, risk factors and outcomes  of depression
    -provide referenced outcomes associated with victims 
    -Introduce topic of internalizing issues
    -strong and referenced definition of internalizing issues and specify anxiety and depression as two types of internalizing issues
    -define anxiety
    define depression
    -justify the above component and define all relavent variables making sure to include a bit of information on the association between racism and internalizing issues.
    define physical health outcomes

    -justify the above component and define all relavent variables making sure to include a bit of information on the association between racism and physical health outcomes.
    -finally state the thesis statement, stated objective and limitations

    Racism (IV) and Internalizing symptoms (Anxiety and depression; DV)

    Anglin, D. M., Lighty, Q., Greenspoon, M., & Ellman, L. M. (2014). Racial discrimination is associated with distressing subthreshold positive psychotic symptoms among US urban ethnic minority young adults. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology: The International Journal for Research in Social and Genetic Epidemiology and Mental Health Services, 49(10), 1545-1555.   
    IV = Racism
    DV = Depression
    Theme = Adults, Adolescents, Men and Women, Minority groups, Urban population, Young Adults, Self-report, College Students 

    Carter, R. T., Kirkinis, K., & Johnson, V. E. (2020). Relationships between trauma symptoms and race-based traumatic stress. Traumatology: An International Journal, 26(1), 11-18.
        IV = Racism 
        DV = Race-based traumatic reactions (e.g., Anxiety)
        Theme = Trauma, Race-based Trauma, Adults, Racially Diverse, University Students

    Davis, G. Y., & Stevenson, H. C. (2006). Racial socialization experiences and symptoms of depression among black youth. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(3), 303-317.
    IV = Racism
        DV = Depression
        Theme = Adolescence, Men and Women, African American, University Students

    Donovan, R. A., Galban, D. J., Grace, R. K., Bennett, J. K., & Felici, S. Z. (2012). Impact of racial macro- and microaggressions in Black womens lives. Journal of Black Psychology, 39(2), 185196. 
        IV = Racism
        DV = Anxiety symptoms
        Theme = University students, Black, Women
    Graham, J., West, L., Martinez, J., Roemer, L., & Graham, J. (2016). The mediating role of internalized racism in the relationship between racist experiences and anxiety symptoms in a Black American sample. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 22(3), 369376.
        IV = Racism
        DV =, Anxiety,
        Theme = Black Americans, Anxiety, Adults, Men and Women

    Jefferson, K., Neilands, T. B., & Sevelius, J. (2013). Transgender women of color: Discrimination and depression symptoms. Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, 6(4), 121-136.
        IV = Racism
        DV = Depression
        Theme = Adults, Women, Transgender

    Liu, C. M., & Suyemoto, K. L. (2016). The effects of racism-related stress on Asian Americans: Anxiety and depression among different generational statuses. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 7(2), 137-146.
    IV = Racism
    DV = Anxiety, Depression, Interpersonal sensitivity
    Theme = Asian American, Generations, University Students 

    Paradies, Y. C., & Cunningham, J. (2012). The DRUID study: Exploring mediating pathways between racism and depressive symptoms among indigenous Australians. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology: The International Journal for Research in Social and Genetic Epidemiology and Mental Health Services, 47(2), 165-173.
        IV = Racism
        DV = Depression
        Theme = Indigenous Racism, Australia, Adults, Men and Women

    Sosoo, E., Bernard, D., Neblett, E., & Sosoo, E. (2019). The influence of internalized racism on the relationship between discrimination and anxiety. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology. Advanced online publication.
    IV = Racism
        DV = Mental Health Functioning (e.g., Anxiety)
    Theme = African Americans, College Students, Men and Women

    Yang, H., Wu, J., Huang, S., Lien, M., & Lee, T. S. (2014). Perceived discrimination, family functioning, and depressive symptoms among immigrant women in Taiwan. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 17(5), 359-366.
    IV = Racism
        DV = Depressive symptoms
        Theme = Immigrant families, Children, Adults, Male and Female

    Racism (IV) and Physical health outcomes (DV)
    Del Toro, J., & Hughes, D. (2020). Trajectories of discrimination across the college years: Associations with academic, psychological, and physical adjustment outcomes. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 49(4), 772-789.
    IV = Racism
    DV = Poor health status (e.g., self-rated health
    Themes = Adults, Students, Men and women, Racially Diverse (e.g., Black or African American, Asian American, and Latino), Longitudinal study

    Foynes, M. M., Smith, B. N., & Shipherd, J. C. (2015). Associations between race-based and sex-based discrimination, health, and functioning: a longitudinal study of marines. Medical care, 53(4 Suppl 1), S128S135.
    IV = Racism
            DV = Physical Health
            Theme = US, Marines, Adults, Men and Women, Racially diverse (e.g., White, Asian/Pacific Islander, African, White Hispanic, and Other), Longitudinal design
    Gibbons, F., Kingsbury, J., Weng, C., Gerrard, M., Cutrona, C., Wills, T., Gibbons, F. (2014). Effects of perceived racial discrimination on health status and health behavior: a differential mediation hypothesis. Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 33(1), 1119.
        IV = Racism
        DV = Physical health status
        Theme = Physical Health, Substance Use, African American, Women, Adults
    Lewis, J. A., Williams, M. G., Peppers, E. J., & Gadson, C. A. (2017). Applying intersectionality to explore the relations between gendered racism and health among black women. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64(5), 475-486.
        IV = Racism
        DV = Physical health outcomes (e.g., Limitations in physical functioning)
        Themes = Black, Women, Middle class

    Luo, Y., Xu, J., Granberg, E., & Wentworth, W. M. (2012). A longitudinal study of social status, perceived discrimination, and physical and emotional health among older adults. Research on Aging, 34(3), 275-301.
        IV = Racism
        DV = Physical health (e.g., self-rated health, functional limitations, and chronic conditions)
        Theme = Older adults, Men and Women, Racially Diverse (e.g., White, Black, Hispanic, and other)

    McDonald, J. A., Terry, M. B., & Tehranifar, P. (2014). Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife. Women’s Health Issues, 24(1), e53-e59.
        IV = Racism
        DV = Chronic health conditions (e.g., Heart disease or angina, Heart attack, High Cholesterol, Hypertension, Diabetes, Asthma, Thyroid Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Pain, Cancer, or Other Illnesses not Listed)
        Theme = Women, Adults, Racially diverse (e.g., Hispanic, African American, and White) 

    Mouzon, D., Taylor, R., Woodward, A., & Chatters, L. (2017). Everyday racial discrimination, everyday non-racial discrimination, and physical health among African-Americans. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work: Microaggressions and Social Work Practice & Research, 26(1-2), 6880.
        IV = Racism
        DV = Chronic health (e.g., Cardiovascular (hypertension, stroke, blood circulation problems, and heart problems or heart attack, respiratory (asthma, chronic lung disease, and tuberculosis), and pain (arthritis or rheumatism, ulcers, very bad headaches or migraines, and serious back problems).
        Theme = Black Americans, Chronic health, Physical Health, Racism
        *This study was previously approved in blog 4

    Nadimpalli, S., Cleland, C., Hutchinson, M., Islam, N., Barnes, L., & Van Devanter, N. (2016). The association between discrimination and the health of Sikh Asian Indians. (Report). 35(4), 351355.
    IV = Racism
    DV = Physical health (Physical functioning, Role-Physical, Bodily-Pain, General Health Conditions)
        Theme = Racism, Health Disparities, Health outcomes, Sikh, Asian, Indian, Adults, Men and Women

    Siddiqi, A., Shahidi, F., Ramraj, C., & Williams, D. (2017). Associations between race, discrimination and risk for chronic disease in a population-based sample from Canada. Social Science & Medicine, 194, 135141.
        IV = Racism
    DV = Chronic conditions (e.g., Asthma, arthritis, back problems, migraine headaches, intestinal or stomach ulcer stroke, urinary incontinence, bowel disorder, scoliosis, or Alzheimers disease, and obesity) and Risk factors (e.g., Hypertension, smoking, binge drinking, and physical health)
    Theme = Canadian, Adults, Racially Diverse (e.g., White, South Asian, Chinese, Black, Filipino, Latin American, Arab, Southeast Asian, West Asian, Korean, Japanese, and other), Chronic Disease

    Versey, H. S., & Curtin, N. (2016). The differential impact of discrimination on health among black and white women. Social Science Research, 57, 99.
        IV = Racism
        DV = Physical health consequences (e.g., Physical functioning) 
        Theme = Women, Black and White, Older adults

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