Fundamental to individuals both learning and retaining new movements is the reinforcement they receive during the learning process. For example, a coach simply saying, no, that is incorrect is a type of external reinforcement that can provide incentives for the athlete/learner to change their movement efforts. Almost no learning occurs without some type of reinforcement. Meaning, feedback that provides support for the accuracy of the movement, or lack there-of. In Banduras classic Social Learning Theory work, he presents a strong case that humans are very social beings. And as such, what we see, feel, hear, and experience have profound effects on our behavior.
Bandura makes a strong case for principles such as distinctiveness of a model that may be demonstrating a movement. If LeBron James is demonstrating a free throw as compared to you, it is reasonable to expect that the learner will attend to his presentation and ideas with much greater focus. An individuals arousal level and past reinforcements will also have great influence on a learners motivation to both attend to relevant information and meaningfully engage in the learning process. What we are talking about here are those factors that will affect an athlete/individuals willingness to practice, dig deeply, repetition, repetition, repetition!
What reinforcement you provide, and how you deliver that reinforcement to a learner will set the table for their understanding, eagerness, and ultimately success.
In assignment 2 you are asked to illustrate your strategy in providing reinforcement to a learner,
-First, select a skill of interest different than that chosen in assignment one. (Different than Running)
-Second, explain the learners ability, experience and learning situation
-Third, find and summarize two peer reviewed journal articles (one-page review + APA reference per article). One article supports your thoughts on the importance of reinforcement, and the second article provides application of goal-setting principles.
Three external reinforcers you could use
Three vicarious reinforcers you could apply/recommend
Three internal reinforcers you will nurture
Three negative reinforcers that may be used
Three punishments that are frequently used
Conclude your presentation with a one-page explanation of how you will teach this skill using the reinforcers identified: the order, frequency, and type of rewards. Include the possibility for temporarily failure and corresponding reinforcement as well.