Principles of Art

    This is a Discussion:–

    Discussion – Principles of Art 
    This week you will working on a journal assignment. This will be broken up into two parts; research and  write up/discussion. You will want to keep the following definitions in mind before you begin this assignment:

    UNITY DEFINED:

    Unity requires that the whole design is more important than any subgroup or individual part.  Unity is the goal of all design.  Balance between unity and variety is key to a good design.

    There are four ways of relating elements to achieve unity:

    Alignment: Proper Alignment in design means that every element in it is visually connected to another element.
    Contrast: Unique elements in a design should stand apart from one another. Contrast is achieved by using elements like color, tone, and size variations to all allow the viewers eye to flow naturally.
    Proximity: elements that physically close are seen as related
    Repetition: elements that reoccur with position, size and color and also use of graphic elements. Simple repetition without variety can be boring in its sameness.
    SPACE DEFINED:

    Space as it relates to art refers to the areas around or within the elements of a work of art.  Space can refer to both positive and negative areas within the piece.

    Things to keep in mind when analyzing and deploying space in a work of art:

    Negative Space: Can be white or empty but this is not always the case.  Think of negative space as a design element and a way to lead the eye through the design. It can also be used as a space for the eye to rest and help to create balance in conjunction with positive space. Keep in mind that balance and space are closely related when developing a work of art.
    Positive Space: Refers to elements in a work of art such as shapes, line and texture.  These elements are what help to convey message/story in a design.

    DOMINANCE DEFINED:

    Dominance is created by visually reinforcing something we want the viewer to pay attention to. Focal points are areas of interest the viewer’s eyes skip to. The strongest focal point with the greatest visual weight is the dominant element of the work. Elements of secondary importance could be termed sub-dominant, and elements with the least visual weight subordinate. Isolation, leading lines and convergence, contrast, anomaly, size, placement, framing, focus and depth of field, and absence of focal points are some of the strategies used to help create these degrees of importance. Emphasis is created by visually reinforcing something we want the viewer to pay attention to. Focal points are areas of interest the viewer’s eyes skip to. The strongest focal point with the greatest visual weight is the dominant element of the work. Elements of secondary importance could be termed sub-dominant, and elements with the least visual weight subordinate. Isolation, leading lines and convergence, contrast, anomaly, size, placement, framing, focus and depth of field, and absence of focal points are some of the strategies used to help create these degrees of importance.

    Things to keep in mind when analyzing and deploying space in a work of art:

    Isolation – By separating the subject from other distracting elements and placing it against a plain background, the viewer is left with nothing else to focus on.
    Leading Lines and Convergence – A line, arrow, or similar triangular or elongated element can indicate a direction and point towards something, leading the eye in that direction. When multiple elements converge toward a point (such as lines going back into perspective), they can create an even greater pull of attention in that direction.
    Contrast – The more strongly something contrasts with its surroundings, the easier it is to see and the more energy it will seem to have. Strong contrast in value, color, etc. can make elements “pop”.
    Anomaly – A single square in a repeating pattern of circles will stand out – it’s not like everything else, it doesn’t blend in, it breaks the pattern: this can call attention and add interest. In something perfectly flat, smooth, white, etc. our eye will always be drawn to the one little flaw – the pencil scratch, the rough spot, the wrinkle. Anomaly can also be created by juxtaposing things that are not normally seen together, or depicting scenes that invert or alter the everyday.
    Size – The larger it is, the more visual weight it will have and the more clearly it will be visible. Do not be afraid to fill the frame with your subject, even if it means not all of the subject will fit in the frame. Concentrate on and enlarge what is important, so the viewer can connect with it.
    Placement – An element placed front and center will confront the viewer. All else being equal, a third of the way in from any border can be a visually pleasing place to locate something of importance.
    Framing – Just as a picture frame sets off a painting from the wall and calls attention to the artwork, similar elements within an artwork can help direct attention. Posing or painting a figure framed by a doorway, window, objects associated with them (a cook framed by hanging pots and pans, etc.) or other environmental element can help set off the subject and tell something about it. In three-dimensional work, framing (tubes, tunnels, portals, openings, gaps, cracks, etc.) can not only reveal or limit views, they can also let in and channel light, wind and rain, creating other interest.
    Focus and Depth of Field – When we look at something, we focus on it so we can see sharp detail. In art, areas depicted in sharp focus will be dominant. Depth of field is the range from near too far in which objects appear to be in focus. When you look out at a landscape, for example, everything from pretty close to far away appears in focus (if your vision or glasses are good) and the depth of field is said to be large (deep focus). In this case, other factors than focus will direct attention within the work. If you are looking at someone’s face close to yours, you may only be able to focus on their eyes, while everything else is blurry – this is called shallow depth of field, or shallow focus. Using a shallow depth of field gives the artist the ability to direct attention by choosing just what she wants to be in focus, be it near-distance, middle or far. Blurring the background can be a good way to reduce distracting elements and help isolate the subject.

    HIERARCHY DEFINED:

    Visual hierarchy refers to the arrangement or presentation of elements in a way that implies importance. In other words, visual hierarchy influences the order in which the human eye perceives what it sees.

    Things to keep in mind when analyzing and deploying a structure of hierarchy in a work of art:

    Hierarchy creates organization on the page/canvas
    Hierarchy helps to lead the eye through the page
    Hierarchy necessitates dominance and a focal point in the work of art
    Hierarchy helps to create unity through repetition, contrast, color and
    BALANCE DEFINED:

    Balance is a state of equalized tension. It is the concept of visual equilibrium, and relates to our physical sense of balance. Balance is a reconciliation of opposing forces in a composition that results in visual stability. The most successful compositions achieve balance in one of two ways: symmetrically or asymmetrically.

    Things to keep in mind when analyzing and deploying balance in a work of art:

    There are three types of balance to consider:
    Symmetrical Balance or formal balance attracts attention and is dynamic. Symmetrical designs are static and evoke feelings of classicism, formality and constancy.
    Asymmetrical Balance or informal balance attracts attention and is dynamic. Asymmetry requires a variety of element sizes and careful distribution of white space. Asymmetrical design evokes feelings of modernism, forcefulness and vitality.
    Mosaic Balance or overall balance is usually the result of too much being forced on a page. Mosaic balance lacks hierarchy and meaningful contrast.

    Part 1:RESEARCH AND WRITE UP:——–

    For this assignment you will want to find three designs or works of art that demonstrate the principles of design. These can range from an advertisement for a product in a magazine to a movie poster or fine art. You will need to photograph or find a digital copy and upload that into the discussion forum for this assignment.  You will also need to do a quick write up discussing how each of the principles of art that were discussed in class is achieved in each of the pieces that you find.  This should be a paragraph or longer for each piece.  Be sure to include the vocabulary that has been described above in your write up.

    Part 2: Discussion RESPONSES POSTS:——

    For this portion of the assignment you will need to respond to 3 of your classmate’s initial posts. You are expected to analyze the work that is being discussed and respond utilizing the vocabulary that has been provided to you for this assignment.

    CRITERIA:——-

    Three works of art/design are uploaded to discussion forum:—-(15 POINTS)

    Written portion this should be a paragraph or longer for each of the three works of art/design.  The write up should incorporate art vocabulary and demonstrate how the given principle of art is achieved in each piece being discussed…….(15PTS)

    Response Posts 3 response posts are submitted  incorporating art vocabulary and demonstrating how the given principle of art is achieved in each piece being discussed.(15PTS)

    I WILL SEND YOU MY 3 CLASSMATES POSTS IN FEW HOURS YOU NEED TO REPLY 3 OF THEM

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