Any topic (writer’s choice)

    Read the terms listed below and choose among them TWO as IDs. Identifications, which definition provided, then in one or two or three sentences, say Why it is important.


    Terms And Concepts

    In Political Science

    1. Normative means to use values, ideals, norms, as measures; and it is by definition a subjective approach to the study of anything. A brief phrase that sums up a normative study would be:

    The way things ought to be! A conclusion of a normative study is a judgment.

    2. Empirical means in Ancient Greek, to know through the use of ones senses, In other words to know by observing. It does not start with any measures at all, it starts with raw data That is collected randomly. A brief phrase that would sum up an empirical study would be: the way things are! A conclusion in an empirical study would be a finding. Empirical studies are supposed to be objective.

    3. Quantitative is the only approach that can be used with other approaches. It seeks to make the study of anything more precise and perhaps available to be compared. However, when used alone, it is often away for a scholar to use formulae to mimic natural or human phenomena. It then uses probability, to try and Predict some future event or condition. It is an educated guess. It is not observation, nor is it after the fact measurement. Therefore, polls which are quantitative models of how people answer certain questions is only a guess based on certain principles of probability, and on assumptions made by the pollsters. It has no basis in fact. It is -a guess, a prediction.

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